Stroke affects millions of Americans and is a leading cause of disability. In addition to chronic disability, many survivors experience depressive symptoms such as reductions in mood and motivation. Post-stroke depression (PSD) is associated with poorer recovery from stroke, increased health care costs and higher mortality. Additionally, PSD may interfere with the recovery of the nervous system after stroke. Effective treatment options for PSD are limited and often come with side effects, highlighting the need for alternative treatment approaches. Aerobic exercise (AEx) has positive effects on the nervous system, is a powerful anti-depressant, and has limited side effects, yet remains underutilized in stroke survivors with PSD. This study will examine the short-term effects of AEx on the nervous system in stroke survivors with and without PSD. The results will serve as a foundation for the study of AEx as a treatment for PSD.
The goal of this pilot study is to determine whether a repetitive high-dose form of non-invasive brain stimulation is a promising and safe treatment for stroke-related cognitive difficulties. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is an FDA approved treatment for depression, and is used commonly to treat people for their depression. In studies of rTMS for depression and other disorders, individuals have experienced improved cognitive function. Thus, we are testing here whether cognitive function in individuals with chronic stroke could be improved by rTMS.
Stroke survivors with arm paresis because of stroke use their "good" arm for daily activities, but in doing so may be self-limiting their own recovery of the "bad" arm. Traditional models of stroke rehabilitation fail to fully engage the survivor and care partner(s) in actively planning post-discharge habits that improve their capacity to live well over their entire lives. This study will test a cutting-edge in-person therapy + online training program designed to progressively transfer the responsibility of driving post-stroke recovery from the therapist to the survivor.
Stroke is the leading cause of disability, as many of those affected demonstrate difficulty with movement and
walking. Rehabilitation post-stroke can be challenging and often ineffective because no two stroke survivors
present with the same mobility impairments, yet the same physical therapy interventions are utilized. Thus, a need exists to personalize rehabilitation techniques to improve function and mobility post-stroke. The proposed innovative research will test a framework created to identify the most effective intervention based on a participant's specific motor control problems. We plan to study how self-selected walking speed is impacted by a four-week walking program that incorporates either walking on an inclined or declined treadmill compared to walking on a flat treadmill. We will determine the best intervention for each problem and identify predictors of response. Selecting the correct intervention for personalized motor control problems, as opposed to applying a one-size-fits-all strategy for rehabilitation, is likely to improve walking function in Veterans after stroke.
The purpose of this research study is to understand the association between heart and brain health in a population of 40-75 year olds. In this study, we will work to better understand blood vessel stiffness and brain function in African American and non-Hispanic white individuals. You will be asked to give blood during the study visit. Additional information will be obtained to help the researcher better understand the blood vessel and brain function data collected. There is only one study visit that last roughly 2 hours and compensation will be available.
ARCADIA is a multicenter, biomarker-driven, randomized, double-blind, active-control, phase 3 clinical trial of apixaban (Eliquis) versus aspirin in patients who have evidence of atrial cardiopathy and a recent stroke of unknown cause. 1100 subjects will be recruited over 2.5 years at 120 sites in the NINDS StrokeNet consortium. Subjects will be followed for a minimum of 1.5 years and a maximum of 4 years for the primary efficacy outcome of recurrent stroke and the primary safety outcomes of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage and major hemorrhage other than intracranial hemorrhage.
Stroke is the leading cause of long-term disability in the United States and less than 50% of survivors regain independent ambulation. While lower extremity performance is a prime target of rehabilitation, little is known about patterns of neural function and structure which may influence, or be influenced by recovery of coordinated, lower extremity function. In this pilot study, we are developing a paradigm to measure lower extremity movement on brain function. Healthy controls and stroke patients will undergo 2 MRI scans wherein we will measure the brain activity associated with lower extremity movement.
After stroke, it is common for individuals to have difficulty attending to the affected side of their body or to the affected side of space (neglect). Rehabilitation therapists use many different clinical assessments to measure this inattention. However, it is unclear whether items from some of the most commonly used assessments are able to effectively and comprehensively measure inattention. Rehabilitation therapists use clinical assessments to inform treatment and document patient progress. Therefore, it is important that we examine these existing assessments.
Individuals with neglect frequently experience weakness in their arm/hand. This study also examines the effects of non-invasive brain stimulation (transcranial direct current stimulation) and arm/hand rehabilitation training (repetitive task-specific practice) on excitability in the brain, attention, and arm movement ability.
Speech and language therapy for the management of aphasia (a language impairment that often occurs as a result of a stroke) is generally shown to be effective. However, the reasons that certain treatments may work for some individuals, and not others, and why some individuals do not respond to treatment is largely unknown. In this study, we plan to identify and model the relationship between many different factors (such as personal/biographical factors and an individual's baseline cognitive and language abilities) to help predict aphasia treatment outcome. Participants will be recruited for speech and language testing, brain imaging (MRI), and aphasia treatment (as warranted).
This study has 4 parts: In one part of this study, people with stroke will either play a custom designed computer game for stroke rehabilitation called Duck Duck Punch or an off the shelf computer game with their weaker arm 3 times per week for 6 weeks. Evaluations will determine whether or not one computer game improved arm movement more than the other. In the 2nd part of the study, people with stroke, caregivers of people with stroke and stroke rehabilitation therapists will meet in several focus groups to design a useful and informative Duck Duck Punch performance report. In the 3rd part of the study we will test the accuracy of the Duck Duck Punch tracking system. Finally, in the 4th part of the study, we will test a new online class to teach about how to carry on stroke rehabilitation after the therapy ends.