This is a study to develop a test for radiation exposure in the event of a nuclear event such as the detonation of a nuclear device or widespread radiation exposure. We will collect blood samples from a variety of different types of human subjects whose current medical status could possibly have an effect on the results of the test, such as trauma, burns, infections or a damaged immune system or young children. The goal is to ensure that these conditions do not affect the results of the test.
HIV-related fatigue is a serious problem for those infected with the virus. We believe that cognitive behavioral stress management is a good solution since stress is the most consistent predictor of increases in fatigue for this group. We want to convert an already proven curriculum to an mHealth format to extend the reach of this intervention.
This prospective, single-site, pharmacokinetic, cohort study will examine the effects of obesity on plasma drug concentrations of efavirenz. Concentrations from two different times (random and 12-hour sample) will help form subject-specific pharmacokinetic drug curves to evaluate obesity's effects on efavirenz concentrations. Forty subjects (10 normal weight, 10 overweight, 10 obese, and 10 extremely obese) will be enrolled.
Treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is now possible with all oral medications. While most patients achieve a sustained virologic response (SVR) after treatment, synonymous with cure, some patients relapse after treatment for reasons that are unclear. The goal of this research is to understand how a person's immune system changes during treatment of HCV infection with all oral therapy, and how these changes might impact the chances of relapse after treatment. To address these questions, blood and clinical information will be collected from study participants over the course of receiving standard of care treatment for HCV infection. This blood and clinical information will be used to conduct laboratory research focused on the immune system.
Pitavastatin lowers high cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the blood. The primary purpose of this study is to determine the effects of pitavastatin on lowering the traditional risk factors for cardiological events in patients who have HIV.
To maximize the public health benefit of expenditures on HIV prevention, treatment and care in Sub Saharan Africa programs are needed that synergistically combine intervention strategies, target the intensity of interventions to attributable risk, support couples to reduce their risk of HIV transmission within the partnership, and facilitate safe and acceptable uptake of available treatment and prevention services. The goal of this study is to advance methodological innovations in the support of cost- effective combination HIV prevention programs.
The study will develop reliable indicators for intervention exposure using biometric identifiers, develop indicators that capture dynamic multi-component risk reduction strategies, establish proof of concept for the combination and scalability of proven HIV intervention components never before brought to scale (HIV self-testing, PrEP for discordant couples), carefully assess the safety and acceptance of the strategy, and examine important operational issues related to comparative cost and efficiency of competing strategies.
The study will be conducted in Kisarawe, Tanzania. The intervention, if found efficacious, would provide needed program and policy guidance highly significant to public health. In addition, if these strategies being explored are proven to be effective it could lead to substantial savings to US programs that support
global AIDS control and treatment.
South Carolina Coalition for Care of Serious Illness (SCC CSI) sponsors development of Physician Orders for Scope of Treatment (POST) in South Carolina. The SC POST follows the national POLST (www. polst.org) paradigm creating an advance treatment planning physician order that migrates as valid across institutional boundaries: from physician office, to home/nursing home/hospice to EMS to hospital emergency/inpatient services. The POST form encourages a conversation between a physician and the patient regarding treatment options available to seriously ill patients for whom death within a year would not be a surprise. These choices primarily include whether to attempt cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the event of cardiac or pulmonary arrest or not (a ?DNR? or ?Allow Natural Death? order) and whether during acute illness to provide full treatment including endotracheal intubation and intensive care, supportive treatment such as noninvasive ventilation and no intensive care, or comfort care only. The Charleston and Greenville areas will pilot POST. Investigators by area will survey providers completing POST documents for patients or treating patients with POST about the utility of this form and how use of the form affected their patient's treatment. A chart reviews of patients presenting with a POST form to a hospital emergency or inpatient unit will address whether providers respected patient treatment choices. SCC CSI plans to publish the results of the pilot in appropriate journals and present the results at medical meetings and to interested persons. The results of the study may provide the supporting documentation for subsequent legislation supporting POST. POST represents a coordinated statement of a seriously ill patient?s treatment choices to be honored across multiple treatment settings.