This research is being done to find out if brain stimulation combined with a rehabilitation therapy improves arm weakness as a result of having a stroke. The stimulation technique is called transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). The treatment uses direct electrical currents to stimulate specific parts of the brain. The rehabilitation therapy is called "modified Constraint Induced Movement Therapy" (mCIMT). During this rehabilitation therapy study participants will wear a mitt on the hand of the arm that was not affected by their stroke. It is designed to restrain the use of the unaffected arm, while performing therapy with impaired one.
It is not known if brain stimulation combined with rehabilitation therapy will improve arm weakness. Study participants will receive rehabilitation therapy while on this study. Study participants may or may not receive the brain stimulation therapy.
This study is to determine which stroke patients will develop moderate-to-severe limb tightness (spasticity) or limb weakness 90 days after a stroke.
Inpatients at Medical University of South Carolina, 21 years old or older, with first-ever stroke with limb tightness or weakness on one side can participate.
This study has 3 visits in 90 days.
The data from this study will then be combined with existing data to develop a simple bedside assessment for post-stroke limb spasticity 90 days post-stroke.
In this study, we plan to record electric fields (EF) in the brain while transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is applied through the scalp. We will include patients who are scheduled to undergo deep brain stimulation (DBS) procedure to participate in the study, after explaining the procedures, answering any questions and receiving informed consent. The study might prolong the duration of the DBS procedure by a few minutes because of the time taken to apply tDCS. However, no other deviations from standard DBS procedures will be made. That is, no additional DBS electrode penetrations will be performed for research purposes - we will record from DBS electrodes that are being inserted exclusively as a part of clinical care.
During the acute stroke phase, physicians are frequently asked by patients and or their family members about their recovery potential and functional outcome at 3 months. It is of critical importance for clinicians to predict motor outcome from the acute phase. Being able to make outcome predictions in the acute phase allows clinicians to triage patients for the most appropriate rehabilitation and provides the patient and the patient's caregivers with a reasonable expectation of functional recovery. This study aim to predict motor outcomes at 3 months post-stroke using mutliple measures including neuroimaging, genetic and behavioral measures collected during the acute phase.