Subjects of either gender, who are at least 18 years of age, undergoing hemodialysis, and require a new single-stage radiocephalic or brachiocephalic end-to-side fistula will be eligible to participate in this study. Subjects who meet eligibility criteria and undergo successful AV fistula creation (i.e., a patent fistula confirmed by the presence of a thrill and bruit with satisfactory hemostasis) will be eligible for enrollment. Approximately 130 - 230 subjects are planned to be randomized in equal proportions to treatment and control to yield a minimum of 100 - 200 evaluable subjects. Evaluations to determine fistula suitability for cannulation will start no earlier than day 28 post index procedure and will continue to least weekly. All enrolled subjects will be followed for a period of one year from the time of their index procedure.