Patients scheduled for thoracic surgery will be identified as potential candidates and recruited by a research coordinator before surgery. Research subjects will be randomized to either early or late post-operative urinary catheter (a thin flexible tube placed into the bladder to drain urine) removal. Thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA), a thin tube placed near the spinal cord, will remain functioning after urinary catheter removal for the early group. The study group randomized to early catheter removal will have urinary catheters removed 24 hours after surgery is completed. Study subjects that are randomized to late removal of urinary catheter will have urinary catheters removed after TEA is discontinued as routine clinical care (usually 4-5 days). Determination of bladder urine volume will be made by sound wave examination (ultrasound) by appropriately-trained staff. Following indwelling urinary catheter removal, research subjects may receive a brief urine drain tube as standard clinical care. Laboratory urine analysis will be obtained from urine following removal of urinary catheter and assessed for urinary tract infection (UTI).