A seizure is a common sign or symptom characterized by abnormal electrical activity in the brain that affects about 10% of individuals in the population at some point in their lives. Although most are self-limited and transient, seizures sometimes fail to respond to medications and may even progress despite administration of medications. When these seizures are characterized by spread to both sides of the brain (become generalized), aggressive management with sedating medications is warranted. However, if seizures remain confined to one side of the brain (remain focal), the risks associated with high doses of sedating medications often outweighs the potential benefits of stopping the seizure. This has led to a search for other therapies that can more effectively target and control focal seizures without causing significant sedation, damage to other organs, or medication interactions. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is one such therapy that has shown promise in case series and case reports, although no clinical controlled trial has yet been published to validate its efficacy in patients with severe seizures. In addition, TMS has been shown to be safe for use in epilepsy and other disorders.
We aim to evaluate the efficacy of TMS in patients with severe seizures that are not controlled with medications.
Speech and language therapy for the management of aphasia (a language impairment that often occurs as a result of a stroke) is generally shown to be effective. However, the reasons that certain treatments may work for some individuals, and not others, and why some individuals do not respond to treatment is largely unknown. In this study, we plan to identify and model the relationship between many different factors (such as personal/biographical factors and an individual's baseline cognitive and language abilities) to help predict aphasia treatment outcome. Participants will be recruited for speech and language testing, brain imaging (MRI), and aphasia treatment (as warranted).
This research study will evaluate how the brain processes language and speech. It will use EEG to determine how brain waves are associated with speech and language. The researchers will combine the information from EEG with MRI images to better understand where in the brain the waves related to speech and language come from.