High Potassium levels in the blood (Hyperkalemia) is potentially life threatening, often causing muscle pain and weakness and can lead to an irregular heartbeat or cardiac arrest and is seen frequently in the Emergency Department. The standard treatment for this is insulin and glucose to help the potassium move out of the blood stream and back into the cells, where it belongs. This is a short-term fix until the extra potassium can be removed from the body. Sodium Zirconium Cyclosilicate (ZS) is a medication that is designed to rapidly bind the excess potassium and allow it to be removed from the body. This study is designed to compare ZS along with the standard treatment to the standard treatment along with a placebo to measure the effectiveness of ZS in reducing potassium levels in the blood.
Roughly 8-10 million patients complaining of chest pain come to an Emergency Department (ED) annually in the United States. Quickly determining if you are having a heart attack is critical for improving your chances of survival. Cardiac troponin is a protein that is used as a biomarker (biological marker) to indicate damage to the heart muscle. Cardiac troponin lab tests that are currently used in the United States do not have the ability to detect low levels of troponin. There are more sensitive troponin tests that are primarily used outside the US, that are able to detect lower levels of cardiac troponin within 90-180 minutes instead of 5 or 6 hours. This allows for the early identification of individuals at a higher risk for heart damage and these patients benefit from early diagnosis and treatment. Delaying the treatment of a heart attack increases the chance of dying or being permanently disabled. This study will collect blood samples from people coming to the Emergency Department complaining of chest pain in order to measure this troponin lab test's ability to accurately detect troponin levels.
This is a study to develop a test for radiation exposure in the event of a nuclear event such as the detonation of a nuclear device or widespread radiation exposure. We will collect blood samples from a variety of different types of human subjects whose current medical status could possibly have an effect on the results of the test, such as trauma, burns, infections or a damaged immune system or young children. The goal is to ensure that these conditions do not affect the results of the test.
Protein S is a protein that is very important to the blood clotting process. When people don't have enough Protein S they run the risk of developing blood clots. This study is collecting samples from people who may have abnormal Protein S levels in order to develop a new way of checking the Protein S levels. This test is looking specifically for FREE Protein S. The free protein S is Protein S that is not bound or "tied up" and is therefore more ready to do its job in the clotting process.