We will study how well the relatively new FDA approved pneumonia vaccine can protect older renal transplant recipients against pneumococcal illness. We will specifically study the group of renal transplants in whom the cause of renal failure was either diabetes mellitus II and/or hyoertension. We will compare the findings against those we find in younger renal transplant recipients, older healthy individuals and older persons with diabetes but normal kidney function. Healthy younger individuals will serve as controls for optimal vaccine response.
INVESTED is a multi-site trial comparing high-dose (60 ?g per vaccine viral strain) trivalent influenza vaccine to standard-dose (15 ?g per viral strain) quadrivalent influenza vaccination for up to three influenza seasons in high-risk cardiovascular disease patients with a history of myocardial infarction in the previous 12 months OR history of heart failure hospitalization in the previous 24 months. Subjects will be randomly assigned to receive either the high-dose or standard-dose vaccine.