Adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are nearly three times more likely to develop substance use disorders (SUD) than their typically developing peers, yet there currently are no biomarkers that can help clinicians identify which ADHD patients are at higher SUD risk and thus, who may benefit most from SUD prevention. This is a critical problem, given that ADHD psychostimulant medications ? which are Schedule II Controlled Substances ? are misused and abused by 26.7% of this population. In this research study, non-invasive MRI methods will be used to examine brain structural connectivity (i.e., number of neural fiber connections) and brain iron (as an index of dopamine) as possible brain biomarkers of increased SUD risk in ADHD.
The purpose of this study is to examine brain activity related to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and to understand how individual hereditary factors can influence human behavior and brain activities after. The study will use an investigational technology to measure differences between the brains of 20 individuals diagnosed with ADHD and 20 individuals whom do not experience symptoms that relate with ADHD. The new technology for non-invasively examining the brain is called Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS). Along with the TMS a genetic sample will be obtained through the method of a blood draw to observe the differences in peoples DNA who experience symptoms of ADHD to people that do not. Compensation for time and travel is provided for completion of the visit.